1. Anti-pathogenic microorganisms
Animal experiments show that andrographolide and neoandrographolide both inhibit and delay the increase in body temperature caused by pneumococcus or hemolytic streptococcus, but andrographolide is stronger than neoandrographolide.
In vitro experiments show that Andrographis paniculata has a certain anti-HIV effect.
2. Antipyretic effect
Andrographolide has different degrees of antipyretic effect on the fever caused by endotoxin fever, pneumococcus or hemolytic streptococcus in rabbits. The antipyretic effects of Andrographis A, B, C, and B on febrile rabbits caused by typhoid fever and paratyphoid vaccine or fever rats caused by 2,4-dinitrophenol were successively weakened.
3. Anti-inflammatory effect
Andrographis paniculata A, B, C, and D have different degrees of anti-inflammatory effects. 1g/kg gavage can inhibit the increase in permeability of mouse skin or abdominal capillaries caused by xylene or acetic acid, and reduce the amount of croton oil in Selye's granulation sac. Causes acute exudate volume, but has no obvious effect on granulation tissue proliferation. It can inhibit the development of egg white rat foot swelling, but the effect disappears after removing the adrenal glands. Ding Su has the strongest anti-inflammatory effect, followed by C, A and B.
4. Influence on the immune function of the body
It has been reported that Andrographis paniculata may have an effect on certain aspects of cellular immunity. Its water decoction can improve the ability of human leukocytes to swallow Staphylococcus aureus in vitro, and oral administration of Andrographis paniculata can enhance people's delayed skin hypersensitivity caused by old tuberculin. Andrographis paniculata preparation Xinyandeping (containing esters and ketones) can increase the serum lysozyme level in mice and enhance the phagocytic ability of peritoneal macrophages and neutrophils. Continuous administration of andrographolide sulfonate to rabbits or mice can significantly increase the phagocytic ability of peripheral blood phagocytic cells against pneumococcus or Staphylococcus aureus. Andrographolin injection and Xiyanping injection can also enhance the function of phagocytic cells . Dehydrated andrographolide succinate half ester also inhibited delayed-type hypersensitivity in mice induced by 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene.
5. Anti-fertility effect
Andrographis paniculata has a significant effect on aborting pregnancy. Andrographis paniculata can cause contraception in mice and abortion in pregnant rabbits. Intraperitoneal injection of water decoction has a significant effect of stopping implantation, early pregnancy, middle pregnancy, and late pregnancy in different periods of mice. Intramuscular injection, subcutaneous injection, gavage, intraperitoneal injection, intravenous injection and intrauterine injection can all produce anti-early pregnancy effects. Among them, intraperitoneal, intravenous and intrauterine injections have the best effect. Intrauterine injection, the dosage is small, and the effect is good. If exogenous progesterone or luteinizing hormone is released, hormone (LH-RH) and Andrographis paniculata can be injected at the same time, miscarriage can be prevented. This suggests that Andrographis paniculata may have the effect of antagonizing progesterone in the body and cause miscarriage. Some people believe that Andrographis paniculata has a certain inhibitory effect on the growth of placental villous trophoblast cells cultured in vitro. Studies have shown that some semi-synthetic derivatives of andrographolide also have varying degrees of anti-early pregnancy effects. Dehydrated andrographolide derivatives-Chuan-4 has a good anti-early pregnancy effect on mice and rats, and it is worthy of further study A new contraceptive drug, which has a significant effect on placental trophoblast cells, which can atrophy the placental villi, reduce the number of cells, disappear syncytial cells and Langham cells, and cause interstitial edema and hemorrhage.
6. Gallbladder and liver protection effect
Andrographis paniculata has a gallbladder effect on rats, and can increase liver weight in rats and shorten the sleep time caused by cyclohexylbarbital sodium. Pre-administration of andrographolide can resist the hepatotoxicity caused by carbon tetrachloride, D-galactosamine and acetamidophenol, and can significantly reduce the levels of SGPT, SGOT, SALP, and HTG, respectively. It has been reported that the methanol extract of Andrographis paniculata is toxic and can promote the death of rats with liver injury.
7. Anti-tumor effect
Dehydrated andrographolide succinate half ester has a certain inhibitory effect on W256 transplanted tumors. Dehydrated andrographolide disuccinate half ester potassium hydrogen is made into arginine double salt (abbreviated as andrographolate), which has inhibitory effect on tumor cells regardless of large, medium or small doses, and the effect will increase with the increase of dose. The anti-tumor effect is reliable and stable. In vitro experiments proved that Andrographis paniculata has an inhibitory effect on DNA synthesis of cultured breast cancer cells.
8. Other functions
Yanhuning and Chuanhuning injections have obvious sedative effects, can shorten the incubation period of pentobarbital sodium to anesthetize mice, prolong the anesthesia time, and can cause subthreshold pentobarbital sodium to cause anesthesia.
Andrographolide can increase the function of the adrenal cortex. Andrographolide A, B, C, and D can atrophy the thymus of juvenile mice at larger doses.